model of rear Stanistav-Adzhigol lighthouse

Rear Stanistav-Adzhigol lighthouse
Dnieper estuary, 1911 г.
Engineer: V.G. Shukhov
Manufacturer: A. V. Bari Construction bureau

MARCH - Technology module. ВА2 2019-2020.
Igoshina Polina, Sheverda Daria, Aleksandrovskaya Yulia, Sapozhnikov Mikhail, Keremetchi Stepan, Glebova Valeria
The 76 m high lighthouse is the tallest single-section hyperboloid tower built by V.G. Shukhov, and one of the most characteristic examples of hyperboloid structures of the A.V. Bari early XX century.

The rear Stanislav-Adzhigolsky lighthouse was built in 1911 in the Dnieper estuary opposite the villages of Rybalche in the Golopristansky district and Stanislav in the Belozersky district of the Kherson region. The design of the lighthouse was an important step towards the creation of the Shabolovskaya radio tower (1918-1922), since, unlike water towers, where a hyperboloid shell was a support for a heavy tank, the design of the lighthouse was designed to withstand other dominant loads - wind.

The 59 m high mesh shell is a hyperboloid with a lower base of 18 m and an upper ring 7 m in diameter. In the center of the tower there is a 2 m in diameter steel pipe with a spiral staircase inside. An octagonal iron booth for the duty room is installed on the platform of the upper ring.
rear Stanistav-Adzhigol lighthouse
View of the Adzhigol lighthouse in the Dnieper estuar. АРАН 1508-2-38, №11

The hyperbolic diagrid mesh shell supporting structure of the tower is made up of 60 identical intersecting angle profiles that make up an interconnected network. The profiles are stiffened by a system of horizontal rings, installed with a step of 2 m, forming a solid, spatially rigid structure. The hyperboloid design is characterized by the fact that a spatially rigid system with a complex shape is assembled from simple-to-manufacture rectilinear standard elements. In this case, the shape of the hyperboloid can be adapted with respect to the function of the structure, boundary conditions and is determined by a combination of several parameters: the diameter of the lower ring, the upper ring, height and the angle of inclination of the profile.
construction of hyperboloid
Construction of a hyperboloid

The determining load for the lighthouse is the wind, which presses horizontally on the surface of the structure with the force of 275 kg/m2 (used by Shukhov for the calculations). Despite the fact that the wind blows from one side, the whole structure is subject to deformation, and its windward side (perpendicular to the wind direction) is deflected inwards, while the lateral (parallel to the wind direction) bulges outward. The diagonal profiles of the hyperboloid shell are subjected to tension or compression depending on their position relative to the wind direction. Their main function is to transfer the load from the observation tower, their own weight and the wind to the stone base of the lighthouse. Rings installed with a spacing of 2 m prevent profiles from twisting and sliding against each other. The ties connecting the hyperboloid shell with the central tube partially transfer the wind load to it and prevent deformation of the shell (primarily bulging) on the sides.
structural analysis of hyperbolic mesh shell of the lighthouse under the wind load
Design scheme of efforts in the structure of the lighthouse under the influence of wind load
Photos of the model: Yurii Palmin

We express special gratitude to the A.V. Shchusev State Museum of Architecture and the curator of the exhibition “Shukhov. Formula of Architecture" to Mark Akopian for conducting an exhibition tour and providing archival materials and calculations of V.G. Shukhov, chief architect of GUM Vladimir Kamyshnikov, teacher of MGSU Yuri Yuzhakov, chief engineer of Metal Yapi Vasily Anopchenko and associate professor of the Russian State Humanitarian University Ilya Pechenkin for constructive criticism of the projects.
Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, F. 1508

Further reading
Shukhov V.G., Building mechanics. Selected Works; Edited by Academician A. Y. Ishlinsky. - Moscow: Science, 1977